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tv   Journal  PBS  May 12, 2011 6:30pm-7:00pm PDT

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>> hello and welcome to the journal. thanks for joining us. a german court rules that john demjanjuk helped enough to commit mass murder, but he will not go to jail. germany sees its first green state premier. and science this -- science fiction classic "mitropoulos" returns to the cinema after being lost for nearly 80 years. the verdict is guilty, but there
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will be no jail time. the court in munich has ruled that john demjanjuk was an accessory to the murder of millions of jews in 1943. judges and released him, citing his poor health and his age, 91. >> john demjanjuk was found accessory to the death of millions of people in the so before -- sobibor death camp. judges released him due to his advanced age and time already spent in custody. the judges also said there was no danger of him leaving germany because he is stateless. >> if he has the right to stay one more night in the correctional facility. we hope social services will find an appropriate solution by tomorrow. >> holocaust survivors and relatives of the victims were relieved to hear the guilty verdict, but shocked demjanjuk
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would be released. >> i do not know what this means. now they say he is free. >> the state prosecutor also favored prison time, but was satisfied with the guilty verdict. >> the main point is that it was established that the defendant was in sobibor and was guilty of killing jewish victims. >> demjanjuk's attorney immediately filed an appeal but it could take another year and a half for a final ruling. >> our chief political correspondent has been following the trial. we ask for more on why the judge decided that demjanjuk should not serve his five-year jail term. >> in essence because he has served that time. he was in investigative detention for more than two years while the court was doing its investigation, and also conducting the trial. he is 91 years old.
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much has been made of his frail health, especially by his family. in the end, the court is saying this is less about punishing one old man and establishing the rule of law, and also justice for the victims and survivors, many of whom were present in the courtroom. the defense has said it does plan to appeal this case. even so, demjanjuk is not going anywhere. he was stripped of his citizenship by the u.s. in 2002. at 91, in frail health, he is almost certain to be remaining in germany anyway. >> we will have more on the trial later in this half hour. please stay with us. western capitals are increasing their support for the rebels in libya. friday, the white house will receive members of the libyan rebel council. germany will be opening a liaison office in benghazi. nato continues to bomb tripoli.
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three people reportedly died in those attacks. libyan state tv has aired footage of gaddafi meeting with tribal elders, his first appearance in two weeks, since one of his sons and three grandchildren were killed by a nato airstrike. there have been more violent clashes in yemen. two demonstrators were shot dead. police reportedly shot indiscriminately into a crowd. thousands of opposition supporters took to the streets in the cacatal and other cities to demand the resignation of the president. there have been repeated reports of police using live and rubber bullets to disperse protesters. european interior ministers meeting in brussels are looking at ways of curbing illegal immigration as thousands of migrants continue arriving in the eu tighter controls could mean an end to a decade of passport-free travel between 11 european
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countries. denmark has announced it is reintroducing border checks. france and italy are considering doing the same. >> until the schengen agreement took effect, border controls were the norm. now, denmark is reinstating some of those controls. >> i think you have seen a lot of problems concerning cross- border criminal acvities, and we think that by establishing a stronger custom control that we will be able, within the schengen, to solve some of these problems. >> although many feel there is an overreaction, there is a willingness to review the schengen agreement. there has even been talk of reinstating select border controls. but germany is warning its neighbors not to overdo it.
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>> fiscal start a chain reaction that could eventually -- could eventuallylyo away with that which we value -- the freedom to travel. i think others also share this opinion. >> europe's interior ministers agree that strict conditions must apply to any restriction of free travel within europe. it is up to them to define just what those conditions will be. >> germany's greens are marking a first today, the party's first-ever state premier. many observers believe japan's nuclear disaster catapulted the greens into power in that state. >> mr. president, i accept the result of the vote and would like to express my thanks. [applause] >> now it is official. germany has its first green state premier.
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he was elected in the first round, and results indicate that even two deputieses from rival parts must have voted for him. >> that is just another vote of confidence. i interpret it as a mandate not to be too polarizing, but to ensure the cooperation in this state is strengthened. >> for the greens, t t election as the first state premier opens a new chapter in the history of germany. what that means in policy terms will become more apparent in the next month. the two parties met thursday afternoon to plan their first steps. >> some great news today for german state coffers. but not necessarily for taxpayers. >> germany's tax revenue is growing faster than previously thought because of the strong economic upswing. the government has promised to continue cutting spending to reduce the budget deficit.
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this year it will be below the eurozone ceiling, which is 3% of economic output. >> talk of a surge in tax revenue will raise taxpayers' hopes of cuts. but berlin says a reduction is unlikely. of the 135.3 billion euros of possible additional revenue, 66.4 billion will be allotted to the federal government. state governments will get 49.6 billion, and municipalities 49.3 billion. >> we are moving in the right direction. this is a good development. it will benefit everyone. and it is a good sign that things will continue this way. >> a he wants to continue the government's fiscal austerity. he is aware new threats to his budget could arrive. >> the situation is not as dire as we thought a year ago, but
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things remain tough. >> an accelerated phase-out of germany's nuclear reactors would cost billions. the much talked about e.u. financial transaction task -- tax, which could bring extra revenue, looks a long way off. >> things also look tough for greece. the imf does not expect them to have to restructure, but is urging action to combat the eurozone debt crisis. it even says the ec be could help by refraining from aggressive interest-rate hikes. the imf says the debt crisis poses risks for the current economic upswing led by germany's 2.5% growth rate. the fund says unrelenting reform efforts by peripheral states are essential to protect the court effort from that contagion, which it calls a tangible downside risk. it is time to go to our correspondent at the frankfurt stock exchange to get the latest on the bus today.
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>> all over the world, monetary policies are getting tighter. in china, the government again ordered banks to increase their reserves. this was intended to limit lending and to limit credit- driven speculation in china. in the united states, the federal reserve bank slowly and quantitated easing, which flooded the market with cheap liquidity. in europe, one reserve bank after the other is raising interest rates or plans to do so. this means liquidity-driven speculation definitely is ending now. this is the reason why investors sold commodities, the euro, and stocks. >> european stocks took a battering on thursday. the your debt crisis did not help. there is more uncertainty over global growth. germany's benchmark dax closed down. the eurostoxx 50 was down
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almost a full percent. in new york, the dow industrials are about half a percent higher , and the euro is trading at $1.4237. the european commission says fewer faulty toys and products are ending up in stores in europe, partly because more are being intercepted thanks to the you's rapid alert system. -- the ue's rapid alert system. it quickly circulates information on dangerous goods. >> a perfect day on the slopes. most people here are wearing helmets. but are they really safer? the holes in this, are far too big. it won't withstand the serious impact. the eu health commission has said some international manufacturers must be required to meet the safety standards. >> this is key to product
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safety. manufacturers must manage the quality of the manufacturing process, not just put things on a conveyor belt. >> the number of recalls for safety reasons jumped 13%. most of those products came from china. manufacturers were in brussels to hear the report, including the minister responsible for china's quality supervision and inspection. he attempted to signaled china's willingness to improve standards. >> this year, we started a training campaign aimed at teaching businesses to better understand the quality standards required in nations impoing our goods. >> until better global standards are in place, the rapid alert system will continue to protect consumers. >> i will be checking the ski helmet of mine. >> in spain, 10 people have been confirmed dead after wednesday's
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earthquake that rocked the region of mercia. dozens of injured are still being treated in hospitals. thousands in lorca were not able to return to their houses earlier today. cars were smashed by falling debris. the government sent 800 soldiers to lorca to help with the cleanup. it is considered a milestone in movie history, the science- fiction classic "metropolis." for decades, only a short version of the film existed. but the missing scenes were discovered in argentina. now restored to its former glory, "metropolis" is back in cinemas. >> it was by far the most expensive production of its time. "metropolis," the city of the future, pioneered cutting-edge animation techniques. only a short version ever made it to release. nevertheless, it influenced generations of film makers.
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>> even for those who have not seen it, it became a myth, something you would look for but never find. now it is back and people can finally experience it. >> workers toil below the city while the rich live the good life in luxurious skyscrapers. metropolis is ruled by an autocrat whose son falls in love with a revolutionary. the workers destroy the machines, bringing about the happy end. the capitalists and the workers reconcile, a twist with fritz lang would later regret. for over 80 years, the film was thought missing. in 2008, a copy turned up in buenos aires and was restored. >> the scars are still visible. it is interesting to see what has been altered when you watch the film. >> a colossal flop when it was
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first released, "metropolis" is not accessible to all, a film in journey through time. >> i will stay with science. it is germany's most prestigious award for research, the humble prize. 5 million euros go to the -- the humboldt prize. 5 million euros go to the winners. >> the center for multilingual as some -- for multilingualism is unique. it was set up by a german psycholinguistwho has lived abroad for years. he looks at how the brain processes language, especially for people who are multilingual. the center gives advice to parents and teachers raising children who speak more than one language. he is looking at areas such as the development of language processing as human beings grow older.
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>> we know a lot about language processing in mature adults, and also little bits about language processing in children. but we do not have a complete developmental picture of how language processing abilities change over time with age. p>> this man specialty is physical chemistry. he was going in salt lake city and has spent time at getting in university -- at the university. he studies surface molecules to develop catalysts. like other professors, he will stay at least five years to share his knowledge with young scientists here in germany. >> coming up in one minute, it could be the last proceeding related to nazi war crimes. we are talking about the john demjanjuk trial in munich.
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more of that coming up. captioned by the national captioning institute
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>> welcome back. did he play a role in the deaths of thousands of jews in 1943? today, a munich court said y)s, john demjanjuk is guilty. the trial of the 91-year-old lasted 18 months. there was never a word from demjanjuk, who doctors said was unfit to stand trial. the defense was unsuccessful in their arguments. the claim he was not an accessory to murder in poland.
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one of the main pieces of evidence, the identity card. the judge judge -- the judge felt it was proved that he served as a guard in the death camp in occupied poland. he was found guilty on more than 28,000 tons of excess return murder. this is not the first time he was put on trial in connection to nazi war crimes. he was deported to israel on charges he had serveds a camp guard known as ivan the terrible in treblinka. the court convicted him and sentenced him to death. at the time, he insisted he was innocent, saying he had never been at treblinka but was interned in prisoner of war camps himself. after new evidence exonerated him, demjanjuk was released in
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1993 and returned to the united states, where he had lived and worked for many years. in 2009, germany requested his extradition, saying it could prove his involvement in the extermination of jews at sobibor. his lawyer said he was too ill to travel, but the idea surfaced showing him walking unaidid, and he was extradited. he is now stateless and books to spend the last years of his life in germany. >> melinda crane joins us now for more on this. demjanjuk is 91 years old. some people are asking what is the point of putting such an old man on trial. >> in fact, much was made of his age and his frail health, both by his family and by the defense. the court did recognize his age in so far as it said that although it is handing down a
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verdict of five years, he will not have to serve that time. they did recognize the fact that he has spent two years in detention during the trial and the investigative proceedings before that. as of today, he will be free to go. he does not have a passport. he was the-naturalized by the u.s. -- de-naturalized by the u.s. he will remain in germany. nevertheless, the trial was carried out. that is in part because the plaintiffs argued it was very important to use this last chance. it could be the last chance to investigate the role of so- called ss auxiliary's, lower- ranking members of the system of death camps, including guards. they said this could be the last chance to investigate their role. in fact, the court did take that opportunity and did rule on demjanjuk's guilt. >> you mentioned the plaintiffs.
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the defense argued that even if demjanjuk had been at sobibor, he could not have resisted following orders. why did they reject this argument? >> they said even though he may have been a low-ranking member of the system, he was a part of an extermination camp. they said basically that the holocaust, the murderers of jewish inmates at the death camps, could not have been successful if these low-ranking cogs and wheels had not played their role. the court examined masses of documents it heard -- masses of documents. it heard from witnesses and historians who said that at this camp ere had been a system of extermination in which everybody played a role. >> thanks for the insights. when this trial began in 2009, proceedings were delayed on the very first day because the court room was not equipped to accommodate all the people who
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had come to watch and listen to the testimony. among them were relatives of those who lost their lives at sobibor, who joined the prosecution. our next report looks at how some of them have been reacting to what may well be the last major nazi war crimes trial. >> the joint plaintiffs have been waiting for the state for two years. for them, it is the end of a painful confrontation with the past. they have been to munich four time since the trial got under way. they feel the verdict has made it all worthwhile. >> i am glad he has been found guilty, he has been punished. for me, it is a good and to a trial that began almost two years ago. >> it confirms thatat what happened has not been forgotten. i think that is important.
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both for this german court and for german sensibilities. >> in november 2009, shortly before the trial started, we spoke in their home town. as children, they survived persecution in hideaways, but their relatives were deported to death camps. deportation started from this former theater. today, it is a memorial to dutch holocaust victims. 104,000 people were murdered in sobibor. among them, the families of these men. >> everyone has a mother and father, brothers and sisters. i had a lovely sister. suddenly, all of them are gone. >> it is still extremely important to us. the children and the grandchildren need to know what happened. this is a very difficult and
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very emotional task. >> the joint plaintiffs say they were motivated by a need to come to terms with the past. they needed to achieve some form of justice on behalf of their murdered relatives. >> this is my mother. this is my grandmother. here is the other grandmother and my grandfather. >> that are all family. i am the only one left. >> while the prepared for the trial, it was the first time they were ever to talk openly about their past. >> of course, this will be a very difficult and very hard journey. there will be confrontations. but i have to do it. >> more than 30 joint plaintiffs came to munich, most of them from the netherlands. rudy spent 12 of the 93 days in
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the court room, and was actively involved. demjanjuk, the defendant, remained silent for 18 months, turning down the opportunity to shed light on the case. most of the joint plan tips were disappointed. but they also see positive aspects. >> we have been able to say, both for ourselves and for the world, what we think, and how these events have shaped our lives. and that was good. so i am a little relieved. >> now i want to make straight about it and go further with my life. my children and grandchildren. i think it is ok now. "12 give them a chance to bear witness, -- >> the trial gave
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them a chance to bear witness. that will make the journey home a little easier. >> here are the latest news headlines.
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